Ellis-Pagoria Family History
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Flavius Julius Constantius II di Roma
Male 316 - 340

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  • Birth  Feb 316  Arles, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender  Male 
    Died  340 
    Person ID  I30803  Ellis-Pagoria Family Tree
    Last Modified  23 Dec 2012 
     
    Father  Constantine "the Great" Flavius Valerius of Rome,   b. 27 Feb 271, Naissus, Moesia Superior, Dacia Ripensis, Yugoslavia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 May 337, Nicomedia, Bithynia (now Izmit, Turkey) Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Mother  Flavia Maxima Fausta or Faustina di Roma,   b. 289, Pannonia, Illyria Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 326 
    Married  307  Naissus, Moesia Superior, Dacia, Ripensis, Yugoslavia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID  F10191  Group Sheet
     
    Family  Eusebia,   b. 320, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 360 
    Children 
     1. Macsen Wledig of Britain,   b. 340,   d. 388
    Family ID  F13270  Group Sheet
     
  • Notes 
    • Audrey Maxine Ellis' 43rd Great Grand Uncle

      Constantine II (Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus)[1] (316 - 340), was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. Co-emperor alongside his brothers, his short reign saw the beginnings of conflict emerge between the sons of Constantine the Great, and his attempt to exert his perceived rights of primogeniture ended up causing his death in a failed invasion of Italy in 340.

      Career

      The eldest, possibly illegitimate,[1][2] son of Constantine the Great, he was born at Arles in February, 316,[3] and raised as a Christian. On March 1 317, Constantine was made Caesar,[4] and at the age of seven in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians.[5] At the age of ten he became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni.[5] His military career continued when Constantine I chose his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.[6]

      Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II initially became emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans,[7] with the Empire divided between them and their cousins, the Caesars Dalmatius and Hannibalianus.[8] This arrangement barely survived Constantine I’s death, with the sons of Constantine arranging the slaughter of most of the family of Constantine I at the hands of the army.[9] As a result, the three brothers gathered together in Pannonia[5] and there on September 9, 337,[1][9] divided the Roman world between themselves. Constantine, proclaimed Augustus by the troops[1] received Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.[6]

      He was soon involved in the struggle between the different Christian streams that was rupturing the unity of the Christian Church.[5] The Western portion of the Empire, under the influence of the Popes in Rome leaned towards Catholicism and against Arianism, and through their intercession they convinced Constantine to free Athanasius, allowing him to return to Alexandria.[10] This action aggravated Constantius II, who was a committed supporter of Arianism.[6]

      At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. Constantine soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due, stemming from his position as the eldest of Constantine’s sons.[9] Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, which, in order to maintain a fragile peace, he agreed to do.[9][11] Soon however, they began quarrelling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, and thus Constantine, and that which belonged to Italy, and therefore Constans.[12]

      Additional complications also arose when Constans came of age, and Constantine, who had grown used to dominating his younger brother, would not relinquish the guardianship. Therefore in 340 he marched into Italy at the head of his troops.[11] Constans, at that time in Dacia, detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces.[9] Constantine was engaged in military operations around Aquileia[7] and he was killed in an ambush in Cervignano del Friuli.[11] Constans took control of his deceased brother's realm.

      Sources

      Primary sources
      Zosimus, Historia Nova, Book 2 Historia Nova
      Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus
      Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita

      Secondary sources
      DiMaio, Michael, and Robert Frakes, "Constantine II (337-340 A.D.)", D.I.R.
      Jones, AH.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
      Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1741965988
      Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)

      References

      1. Jones, pg. 223
      2. Zosimus 2:20:2
      3. Victor, 41:4
      4. Victor, 41:6
      5. DiMaio, Constantine II (337-340 A.D.)
      6. Canduci, pg. 129
      7. Eutropius, 10:9
      8. Victor, 41:20
      9. Gibbon, Ch. 18
      10. A. H. M. Jones, "The Later Roman Empire" (Baltimore, 1986), pg. 114
      11. Victor, 41:21
      12. Zosimus, 2:41-42

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