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151 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 25th Great Grandfather

Bohemond II (1108-1130[1]) was the Prince of Taranto and Prince of Antioch from 1111. He was the son of the founder of the principalities, Bohemond I, and Constance, daughter of Philip I of France. Taranto was lost to Roger II of Sicily in 1128.

When his father Bohemond I died, absent from Antioch, Bohemond II was a child living in Apulia. His cousin Tancred took over the regency of Antioch until he died in 1112; it then passed to Roger of Salerno, with the understanding that he would relinquish it to Bohemond whenever the latter arrived. Roger, however, was killed at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119, and the nobles of Antioch invited King Baldwin II of Jerusalem to govern the Principality.

In 1124, at the age of sixteen, he reached his majority. He spent the next two years attending to affairs of state in the Mezzogiorno. Finally, in October 1126, after his eighteenth birthday, he finally left Apulia for Antioch. According to William of Tyre, he reached an agreement beforehand with his cousin William II, Duke of Apulia, that whichever of them died first, would leave his lands in Italy to the other. This is flatly contradicted by Alexander of Telese, who states that Bohemond left his lands under the governance of the Pope, and by Romuald of Salerno, who states that the regency of Taranto went to a relative of Bohemond's, Alexander, Count of Conversano. To whomever the principality of Taranto was left or promised, as part of his agreement to come to Antioch, Bohemond also married Baldwin II's daughter Alice. According to Matthew of Edessa Baldwin supposedly also promised him the crown of Jerusalem, but Matthew might be confusing Alice with her elder sister Melisende of Jerusalem, who also married a westerner, Fulk V of Anjou, around the same time.

In 1127, Bohemond besieged and captured Kafartab, killing all the inhabitants. He also attacked Shaizar, and Usamah ibn-Munqidh supposedly met the prince himself in battle (and frightened him off, if Usamah is to be believed). The next years of his rule were marked by conflicts with Joscelin I of Edessa and skirmishes in the northern border. Both Bohemond and Joscelin attacked Aleppo individually, but refused to cooperate in a larger siege against the city. Roger of Salerno had given away territory to Joscelin, but Bohemond did not consider these donations legitimate as they had been made without his authority, even though he had been a minor at the time. The dispute came to open conflict between Antioch and Edessa, with Joscelin allying with the Muslims against Bohemond. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch placed an interdict over the County of Edessa.

In 1128, his cousin Roger II invaded and conquered Taranto, claiming it as the heir of William II of Apulia. Being away, Bohemond could do nothing to prevent this. That year, Baldwin II marched north to mediate in the dispute, and Joscelin abandoned his claims. Meanwhile, the atabeg Zengi consolidated his power over Aleppo and Mosul and the crusaders would never again have a chance to impose their authority over Aleppo.

After the dispute was settled, Bohemond joined Baldwin II in attacking Damascus but the crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Marj al-Saffar in 1126. Bohemond then turned to the north to recover Anazarbus and other territories lost to the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Leo I, Prince of Armenia allied with the Danishmend Emir Gazi Gümüshtigin against him, and Bohemond's army was lured into an ambush in February 1130 near Mamistra. Bohemond died in the struggle, and his blond head was embalmed, placed in a silver box, and sent as a gift to the caliph.[2]

From his marriage to Alice, only one daughter, Constance of Antioch survived. Alice took over the regency of Antioch for two-year-old Constance, until Baldwin II forced her to relinquish it to Joscelin. Both Baldwin II and Joscelin died some months later.

William of Tyre describes him as "rather tall and of fine figure. He had blond hair and well-made features. His whole bearing plainly showed the prince to those who did not know him. His conversation was agreeable and easily won the favor of those who listened to him. He was of a generous nature and, like his father, truly magnificent."

Usamah ibn-Munqidh calls him ibn-Maymun, the "son of Bohemond."

References

1.^ Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes (1984)
2.^ WT XIII.XXVI, pp. 598-601, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 183
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952
Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. Francis Rita Ryan, ed. Harold S. Fink, 1969
William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943
Philip K. Hitti, trans., An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades; Memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al i'tibar). New York, 1929
Houben, Hubert (translated by Graham A. Loud and Diane Milburn). Roger II of Sicily: Ruler between East and West. Cambridge University Press, 2002

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Bohemond II Guiscard Prince of Antioch
 
152 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 51st Great Grand Aunt

Claudia Antonia (Classical Latin: ANTONIA•CLAUDII•CAESARIS•FILIA[1]) (ca. AD 30-AD 66) was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Claudius and his second wife Aelia Paetina. Antonia was also a great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus, great-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, first cousin of the Emperor Caligula, half-sister to Claudia Octavia and Britannicus, and stepsister and sister-in-law of the Emperor Nero.

Until 37, she was raised by her paternal grandmother Antonia Minor (who died that year). From then until 43, she was raised by her father.

In 43, she first married Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, (a descendant from Pompeia, the daughter of triumvir Pompey), a man of the highest birth. His parents were consul Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi and Scribonia. According to Suetonius he died several years later, because he was stabbed to death while in bed with a favorite boyfriend. Cassius Dio states that the Empress Valeria Messalina (out of her fear, of Pompeius being a rival to Britannicus) ordered his execution, so that Antonia could marry Messalina's half-brother Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix.

Faustus Sulla and Antonia married in 47. They had a son who was of little strength. He died before his second birthday. In 58, Faustus Sulla was exiled, and murdered in 62 on the orders of the Emperor Nero. In 65, Tacitus records the rumour that Gaius Calpurnius Piso intended to marry Antonia, as an element of his conspiracy against Nero.

After the death of the Empress Poppaea Sabina, Nero's second wife, Nero asked Antonia to marry him. When Antonia refused, Nero had her charged with an attempt of rebellion and executed her. With her death, passed the last living grandchild of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor.

Notes

1. E. Groag, A. Stein, L. Petersen - e.a. (edd.), Prosopographia Imperii Romani saeculi I, II et III (PIR), Berlin, 1933 - A 886

References

Biography
E. Groag, A. Stein, L. Petersen - e.a. (edd.), Prosopographia Imperii Romani saeculi I, II et III, Berlin, 1933 - . (PIR2)
Levick, Barbara, Claudius, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990.
Barrett, Anthony A., Agrippina: Sex, Power and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1996.
Griffin, Miriam, Nero. The End of a Dynasty, Batsford, London, 1984

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Claudia Antonia
 
153 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 51st Great Grandmother Ummidia Commificia Antonia
 
154 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 50th Great Grandfather Claudius Apellinus
 
155 At least one living individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Peter J. Apitz
 
156 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 20th Great Grandmother Joan Aquillon
 
157 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 22nd Great Grandfather

Alfonso II (Aragon) or Alfons I (Provence and Barcelona); Huesca, 1-25 March 1157[1][2][3] - 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death.[1][4] He was the son of the count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and the Queen Petronilla of Aragon and the first King of Aragon who was also Count of Barcelona. He was also Count of Provence from 1166 or shortly before,[5] which he acquired from Countess Douce II, until 1173, when he ceded it to his brother Berenguer. His reign has been characterised by nationalistic and nostalgic Catalan historians, as l'engrandiment occitànic or "the Pyrenean unity": a great scheme to unite various lands on both sides of the Pyrenees under the rule of the House of Barcelona.[6]

Reign

Born at Huesca,[2] Alfonso, called indistinctly from birth Alfonso and Ramon,[7] ascended the united throne of Aragon and Barcelona as Alfonso, in deference to the Aragonese, to honour Alfonso I.[8]

For most of his reign he was allied with Alfonso VIII of Castile, both against Navarre and against the Moorish taifa kingdoms of the south. In his Reconquista effort Alfonso pushed as far as Teruel, conquering this important stronghold on the road to Valencia in 1171. The same year saw him capturing Caspe.

Apart from common interests, kings of Aragon and Castile were united by a formal bond of vassalage the former owed to the latter. Besides, on January 18, 1174 in Zaragoza Alfonso married Infanta Sancha of Castile, sister of the Castilian king.[9]

Another milestone in this alliance was the Treaty of Cazorla between the two kings in 1179, delineating zones of conquest in the south along the watershed of the rivers Júcar and Segura. Southern areas of Valencia including Denia were thus secured to Aragon.

During his reign Aragonese influence north of the Pyrenees reached its zenith, a natural tendency given the affinity between the Occitan and Catalan dominions of the Crown of Aragon. His realms incorporated not only Provence (from 1166 or just before),[5] but also the counties of Cerdanya (1168) and Roussillon (inherited in 1172).[10] Béarn and Bigorre paid homage to him in 1187. Alfonso's involvement in the affairs of Languedoc, which would cost the life of his successor, Peter II of Aragon, for the moment proved highly beneficial, strengthening Aragonese trade and stimulating emigration from the north to colonise the newly reconquered lands in Aragon.

In 1186, he helped establish Aragonese influence in Sardinia when he supported his cousin Agalbursa, the widow of the deceased Judge of Arborea, Barison II, in placing her grandson, the child of her eldest daughter Ispella, Hugh, on the throne of Arborea in opposition to Peter of Serra.

Alfonso II provided the first land grant to the Cistercian monks on the banks of the Ebro River in the Aragon region, which would become the site of the first Cistercian monastery in this region. The Monasterio de Piedra was founded in 1194 with thirteen monks from Poblet Monastery, in an old castle next to the Piedra river, the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda was founded in 1202 and utilized some of the first hydrological technology in the region for harnessing water power and river diversion for the purpose of building central heating.

He died at Perpignan in 1196.

Literary patronage and poetry

He was a noted poet of his time and a close friend of King Richard the Lionheart. One tensó, apparently composed by him and Giraut de Bornelh, forms part of the poetical debate as to whether a lady is dishonoured by taking a lover who is richer than herself. The debate had been begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier and was taken up by Azalais de Porcairagues and Raimbaut of Orange; there was also a partimen on the topic between Dalfi d'Alvernha and Perdigon.

Alfonso and his love affairs are mentioned in poems by many troubadours, including Guillem de Berguedà (who criticized his dealings with Azalais of Toulouse) and Peire Vidal, who commended Alfonso's decision to marry Sancha rather than Eudokia Komnene that he had preferred a poor Castilian maid to the emperor Manuel's golden camel.

Marriage and descendants

Wife, Sancha of Castile, daughter of king Alfonso VII of Castile, b. 1155 or 1157, d. 1208
1.Constance, married Emeric of Hungary and later Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
2.Eleanor, married Raymond VI of Toulouse
3.Peter the Catholic, successor
4.Douce (Dolça), nun
5.Alfonso, Count of Provence
6.Ferdinand, Abbot of Montearagon, d. after 1227
7.Ramon Berenguer, d. in the 1190s
8.Sancha of Aragon, married Raymond VII, in March 1211. They had one daughter, Joan, and were divorced in 1241.

References

1.^ a b c d e Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995), «Los "condes-reyes" de Barcelona y la "adquisición" del reino de Aragón por la dinastía bellónida», p. 630-631; in Hidalguía. XLIII (252) pp. 619-632.
2.^ a b c d "Alfonso II el Casto, hijo de Petronila y Ramón Berenguer IV, nació en Huesca en 1157;". Cfr. Josefina Mateu Ibars, María Dolores Mateu Ibars (1980). Colectánea paleográfica de la Corona de Aragon: Siglo IX-XVIII. Universitat Barcelona, p. 546. ISBN 84-7528-694-1, ISBN 978-84-7528-694-5.
3.^ a b c Antonio Ubieto Arteta (1987). Historia de Aragón. Creación y desarrollo de la Corona de Aragón. Zaragoza: Anúbar, pp. 177-184 § "El nacimiento y nombre de Alfonso II de Aragón". ISBN 84-7013-227-X.
4.^ Ernest Belenguer (2006), "Aproximación a la historia de la Corona de Aragón", p. 26, in Ernest Belenguer, Felipe V. Garín Llombart and Carmen Morte García, La Corona de Aragón. El poder y la imagen de la Edad Media a la Edad Moderna (siglos XII - XVIII), Sociedad Estatal para la Acción Cultural Exterior (SEACEX); Generalitat Valenciana and Ministerio de Cultura de España: Lunwerg, pp. 25-53. ISBN 84-9785-261-3
5.^ a b Víctor Balaguer. § "Muerte del Conde de Provenza. Guerras entre el Rey de Aragón y el Conde de Tolosa. Don Alfonso se apodera de la Provenza. (De 1166 a 1168)", in Historia de Cataluña y de la Corona de Aragon. Barcelona: Salvador Manero, 1861, vol. II, book V chap. 2, pp. 11-18.
6.^ T. N. Bisson, "The Rise of Catalonia: Identity, Power, and Ideology in a Twelfth-Century Society," Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations, xxxix (1984), translated in Medieval France and her Pyrenean Neighbours: Studies in Early Institutional History (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 179.
7.^ Ubieto (1987:184-186)
8.^ Luis Suárez Fernández (1976). Historia de España Antigua y Media. Madrid: Rialp, p. 599. ISBN 978-84-321-1882-1.
9.^ Ubieto (1987:202)
10.^ Gerardo II of Rosellon (1164-1174) willed in his testament that "the entire Rosellon I give to my lord the king of Aragón" for the loyalty that he had in his sovereing Alphonso II who was immediately recognized as king in Perpignan. See José Ángel Sesma Muñoz (2000). La Corona de Aragón. Zaragoza: CAI (Colección Mariano de Pano y Ruata, 18), pp. 59-60.

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Alfonso II "The Chaste" King of Aragon
 
158 Constance of Aragon (1179 - 23 June 1222) was an Aragonese infanta who was by marriage firstly Queen consort of Hungary, and secondly Queen consort of Germany and Sicily and Holy Roman Empress. She was regent of Sicily from 1212-1220.

She was the second child and eldest daughter of the nine children of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile.

Queen of Hungary

Her father died in 1196 and Constance's fate was decided by the new King, her brother Peter II. Peter arranged her marriage with King Emeric of Hungary, and the nineteen-year-old Constance left Aragon for Hungary. The wedding took place in 1198. The next year (1199), the Queen gave birth to a son, called Ladislaus.

When King Emeric was dying, he crowned his son Ladislaus co-ruler on 26 August 1204. The King wanted to secure his succession and had his brother Andrew promise to protect the child and help him govern the Kingdom of Hungary until reaching adulthood. Emeric died three months later, on 30 November.

Ladislaus succeeded him as King while Andrew became his Regent. Andrew soon took over all regal authority while Ladislaus and Constance were little more than his prisoners. Constance managed to escape to Vienna with Ladislaus.

The two found refuge in the court of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, but Ladislaus would soon die (7 May 1205). The former Regent and now King Andrew II of Hungary took the body of his nephew and buried him in the Royal Crypt of Székesfehérvár. Duke Leopold sent Constance back to Aragon.

Holy Roman Empress

When Constance returned to Aragon, she took up residence with her mother, Queen Sancha, in the Abbey of Nuestra Senora, at Sijena; Sancha had founded the abbey after her husband's death, and now lived there in retirement. Constance spent the next five years in the abbey with her mother, until her fate, again, was changed by her brother.

Pedro II wanted to be on good terms with Pope Innocent III, since he wanted an annulment of his marriage with Maria of Montpellier, and needed the blessing of the Pope. The Pope solicited the hand of the Dowager Queen of Hungary for his pupil, the young King Frederick I of Sicily. The Aragonese King accepted the proposal; Constance left her mother and the abbey of Nuestra Senora and began her trip to Sicily (1208). She never returned to Aragon or saw her mother again. Sancha died shortly after the departure of her daughter.

Constance and Frederick were married in the Sicilian city of Messina on 15 August 1209. In the ceremony, she was crowned Queen of Sicily. By this time, Constance was thirty years old and her new husband only fourteen. Two years later, in 1211, Constance gave birth a son, called Henry, who later had a tragic end.

On 9 December 1212, Frederick was crowned King of Germany in opposition to Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor. During the absence of her husband, Constance stayed in Sicily as regent of the Kingdom until 1220.

At first Frederick controlled Southern Germany but Otto IV was effectively deposed on 5 July 1215. This time Constance was crowned German Queen with her husband.

Pope Honorius III crowned Frederick Holy Roman Emperor on 22 November 1220. Constance was crowned Holy Roman Empress while their son Henry became the new King of Germany. She died of malaria less than two years later in Catania and was buried in the Cathedral of Palermo, in a Roman sarcophagus with a beautiful oriental tiara.

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Constance of Aragon
 
159 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 22nd Great Grandmother

Sancha of Castile (21 September 1154/5 - 9 November 1208) was the only surviving child of King Alfonso VII of Castile by his second queen, Richeza of Poland, who was the daughter of Vladislav II, Duke of Silesia. On January 18, 1174 she married King Alfonso II of Aragon at Zaragoza, and had at least eight children who survived into adulthood (see below).

A patroness of troubadours such as Giraud de Calanson and Peire Raymond, the queen became involved in a legal dispute with her husband concerning properties which formed part of her dower estates. In 1177 she entered the county of Ribagorza and took forcible possession of various castles and fortresses which had belonged to the crown there.

After her husband died at Perpignan in 1196, Sancha was relegated to the background of political affairs by her son Peter/Pedro II, and she retired from court, withdrawing to the convent for noble ladies, the Monastery of Santa María de Sigena, at Sigena, which she had founded. There she assumed the cross of the Order of St John of Jerusalem which she wore till the end of her life. The queen mother entertained her widowed daughter Queen Constanza of Hungary (1179-1222) at Sijena prior to her leaving Aragon for her marriage with the emperor Frederick II in 1208. She died soon afterwards, aged fifty-four, and was interred in front of the high altar of her foundation at Sigena; her tomb is still to be seen.

Issue
Constance of Aragon, married King Imre of Hungary and later, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leonor, married Count Raymond VI of Toulouse
Peter II of Aragon (I of Barcelona), b. 1174, killed at the Battle of Muret, September 12, 1213
Dolça (nun)
Alfonso II, Count of Provence, b. 1180, d. 1209
Fernando, Abbot of Montearagon, d. after 1227
Ramon Berenguer, d. in the 1190s
Sancha of Aragon, married Raymond VII, in March 1211.

References

E.L. Miron, The Queens of Aragon: Their Lives and Times, Stanley Paul & Co, London (c1910).

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Sancha Queen of Aragon
 
160 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 71st Great Grand Uncle

Nahor, Nachor, or Naghor (Heb. ?????? ISO 259-3 Na?or) may refer to three different names in the Hebrew Bible: two biblical people, who were both descendants of Shem, and one biblical place named after one of these descendants.
1.Nahor, son of Serug, whose son was Terah
2.Nahor, son of Terah
3.Nahor, a town in the region of Aram-Naharaim that was named after the son of Terah

Nahor, son of Serug

In Genesis Chapter 11, Nahor is listed as the son of Serug.[v.22] He was born and raised in the Sumerian city-state of Ur on the Euphrates River of lower Mesopotamia, about four Millenia ago.[1] He lived to be 148 years old [v.24,25] and had a son, Terah at the age of 29.[v.24] He was also the grandfather of Abraham, Nahor II and Haran, all descendants of Shem.[v.10,25-27][2]

Jewish tradition

In Jubilees, Nahor's mother was Milcah daughter of Kaber. Nahor also married 'Iyoska, daughter of Nesteg of the kin of Ur Kasdim, a son of Arpachshad for whom Ur was named.

Nahor, son of Terah

In the account of Terah's family, mentioned in Gen.11:26-32, Nahor II is listed as the son of Terah, amongst two other brothers, Abram and Haran.[v.26,27] His grandfather was Nahor I, son of Serug. Nahor married the daughter of his brother Haran, Milcah, his niece.[v.29] They were all born and raised in the city of Ur. When Abram, had an encounter with God,[3] this brother directed his family to leave their native land and go to the land of Canaan. Terah, their father, coordinated the gathering of his family to journey west to their destination.[v.31] They followed the Euphrates River, with their herds, to the Padan-aram region. This was about halfway along the Fertile Crescent between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean, in what is now southeastern Turkey.[4] In this region, Nahor and his family settled except for his brother Haran, who had died sometime ago back in Ur.[V.28] The city where they settled, Haran, is the place that Nahor's father eventually died.[V.32]

Nahor II continued his own travels and settled in the region of Aram Naharaim where he founded the town, Nahor.[Gen.24:10] Here, he had eight sons to Milcah:[Gen.22:19-23]

1.Uz, the firstborn
2.Buz
3.Kemuel
4.Kesed
5.Hazo
6.Pildash
7.Jidlaph
8.Bethuel, father of Rebekah, the wife of Isaac

To his concubine, Reumah, Nahor had these sons: Tebah, Gaham, Tahash and Maacah.[Gen.22:24]

References
1.^ Dorothy Weitz Drummond. Holy Land, Whose Land?: Modern Dilemma, Ancient Roots, 2004. p.75
2.^ 1 Chr.1:4,26,27
3.^ Acts 7:2-4
4.^ Drummond, 2004, p.75

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Nahor ben Terah the Aramean
 
161 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 43rd Great Grand Aunt
 
Arcadia
 
162 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 30th Great Grandfather Brunulphe II Count of Ardennes
 
163 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 16th Great Grandmother Margaret Arderne
 
164 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Abigail Arey
 
165 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Anthony Arey
 
166 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Archelaus Arey
 
167 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Azobath Arey
 
168 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Beatrice Augusta Arey
 
169 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Claude Chester Arey
 
170 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Deborah Arey
 
171 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Earl Arey
 
172 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Ebenezer Arey
 
173 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Everett Ellsworth Arey
 
174 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Keziah G. Arey
 
175 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Richard William Arey
 
176 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin Thacher White Arey
 
177 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 4th Cousin 4 x Removed Thankful Arey
 
178 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 43rd Great Grandmother

Justina (born circa 340, died circa 391) was the second wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian I (reigned 364-375) and the mother of Valentinian II (reigned 375-392), Galla, Grata and Justa.

Family

Justina was a daughter of Justus, governor of Picenum under Constantius II.[1] According to Socrates of Constantinople: "Justus the father of Justina, who had been governor of Picenum under the reign of Constantius, had a dream in which he seemed to himself to bring forth the imperial purple out of his right side. When this dream had been told to many persons, it at length came to the knowledge of Constantius, who conjecturing it to be a presage that a descendant of Justus would become emperor, caused him to be assassinated."[2]

Justina had two known brothers, Constantius and Cerealis. One of her daughters was named Galla. In "La Pseudobigamie de Valentinien I" (1958) by J. Rougé, all three names were argued to be representative of their descent from the Neratius family, an aristocratic family connected to the Constantinian dynasty through marriage.[3] According to the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire the names Justus and Justina may also indicate a relation to the Vettus family.[4]

The Prosopography mentions a theory that Justus was a son of Vettius Justus, Consul in 328, and a woman of the Neratius family. The latter family produced four relatively notable members in the early 4th century, siblings or half-siblings to each other. The first was Galla, wife of Julius Constantius and mother of Constantius Gallus. Her brothers were Naeratius Cerealis, Consul in 358 and Vulcacius Rufinus, Praetorian prefect of Italy from 365 to his death in 368. An unnamed sister was mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus as mother of Maximus, praefectus urbi of Rome under Julian the Apostate.[4]

Although Timothy Barnes has theorised that Justina was a granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Crispus through her unnamed mother[3][5] (Crispus was the only son of Constantine I and Minervina)[6], it seems more probable that she was in fact the granddaughter of Julius Constantius, son on Constantius Chlorus and half-brother of Constantine the Great. Justina's mother was probably a daughter of Julius Constantius and his first wife, the aforementioned Galla. Hence, this makes Justina at the heart of the family connexions between the dynasty of the Constantines, the Valentinians and the Theodosians[7].

First marriage

Justina was first married to Magnentius, a Roman usurper from 350 to 353.[5][8] However both Zosimus and the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648[9] report that Justina was too young at the time of her first marriage to have children.[10]

Second marriage

In c. 370, Justina became the second wife of Valentinian I. According to Socrates of Constantinople: "Justina being thus bereft of her father, still continued a virgin. Some time after she became known to Severa, wife of the emperor Valentinian, and had frequent intercourse with the empress, until their intimacy at length grew to such an extent that they were accustomed to bathe together. When Severa saw Justina in the bath she was greatly struck with the beauty of the virgin, and spoke of her to the emperor; saying that the daughter of Justus was so lovely a creature, and possessed of such symmetry of form, that she herself, though a woman, was altogether charmed with her. The emperor, treasuring this description by his wife in his own mind, considered with himself how he could espouse Justina, without repudiating Severa, as she had borne him Gratian, whom he had created Augustus a little while before. He accordingly framed a law, and caused it to be published throughout all the cities, by which any man was permitted to have two lawful wives." [2]

John Malalas, the Chronicon Paschale and John of Nikiû report Severa to have been banished because of involvement in an illegal transaction. Barnes considers this story to be an attempt to justify the divorce of Valentinian I without blaming the emperor. Socrates was chronologically closer to the events and his account arguably more reliable. His story was dismissed by later historians whose interpretation of it was an unlikely legalization of bigamy. However Barnes and others consider this decision to only allow various Romans to divorce and then remarry. The controversy being that Christianity had yet to accept the concept of a divorce. Barnes considers that Valentinian was willing to go forth with the legal reformation in pursuit of dynastic legitimacy that would secure his presence on the throne.[11]

Justina became the stepmother of Gratian. Justina and Valentinian I had four known children. Their only son was Valentinian II. Their daughters were Galla, Grata and Justa.[12] According to Socrates, Grata and Justa remained unmarried. They were probably still alive in 392 but not mentioned afterwards.[13] Valentinian I died in 375.[14]

Widow

According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Zosimus and Philostorgius, Justina was living near Sirmium by the time she was widowed. During the reign of Valentinian II, she moved with him to Mediolanum. She served as regent for Valentinian II. She was an Arian Christian though unable to act in favor of her religious faction until after the death of her husband. She maintained a long struggle against Ambrose, leader of the Nicene faction in Italy.[13]

In 383, Gratian had died while facing a major revolt under Magnus Maximus. Maximus proceeded to establish his control of a portion of the Roman Empire including Britain, Gaul, Hispania and the Diocese of Africa.[15] He ruled from his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) and was able to negotiate his recognition by Valentinian II and Theodosius I, starting from 384. The area of Valentinian II had effectively been limited to Italia, ruling from Mediolanum (modern Milan).[12]

In 387, the truce between Valentinian II and Maximus ended. The latter crossed the Alps into the Po Valley and threatened Milan. Valentinian and Justina fled their capital for Thessaloniki, capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and at the time chosen residence of Theodosius. Galla accompanied them. Theodosius was at the time a widower, his first wife Aelia Flaccilla having died in 385 or 386.

Theodosius granted refuge to the fugitives. According to the account of Zosimus, Justina arranged for Galla to appear in tears before Theodosius and appeal to his compassion. Galla was reportedly a beautiful woman and Theodosius was soon smitten with her, requesting to marry her. Justina used this to her advantage, setting a condition for the marriage agreement to be sealed. Under her condition, Theodosius would have to attack Maximus and restore Valentinian II to his throne. Theodosius consented to Justina’s request, the marriage probably taking place in late 387.[16]

The account was questioned by Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont as inconsistent with the piety of Theodosius. Tillemont suggested that the marriage took place in 386, prior to the beginning of hostilities. However The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon considered Zosimus' account more likely and later works, including the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, have followed his example.[17]

In July-August, 388, the combined troops of Theodosius I and Valentinian II invaded the territory of Maximus under the leadership of Richomeres, Arbogast, Promotus and Timasius. Maximus suffered a series of losses and surrendered in Aquileia. He was executed on 28 August 388. His son and nominal co-ruler Flavius Victor was also executed. His wife Helen and two daughters were spared. The condition for Galla's marriage had been met. However Justina died the same year, uncertain if she was able to witness the result of her efforts.[18]

References

1. Timothy Barnes, "Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of Historical Reality" (1998), page 124
2. Socrates Scholasticus, "The Ecclesiastical History", Book 14, Chapter 31, translation by Philip Schaff (1819 - 1893).
3. Noel Emmanuel Lenski, Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century (2002), page 103
4. Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 1
5. David A. Wend, "Magnentius As Emperor"
6. Hans Polshander "Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)"
7. François Chausson, "Stemmata aurea : Constantin, Justine, Théodose. Revendications généalogiques et idéologie impériale au IVe s. ap. J.-C." (2007)
8. Michael DiMaio, Jr., "Magnentius (350-353 A.D) and Decentius (351-353 A.D.)"
9. Catholic Encyclopedia, "John of Antioch"
10. Noel Emmanuel Lenski, Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A.D. (2003), page 103]
11. Timothy Barnes, "Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of Historical Reality" (1998), pages 123-125
12. Walter E. Roberts , "Valentinian II (375-92 A.D.)"
13. Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 1
14. Walter E. Roberts, "Valentinian I (364-375 A.D)"
15. Walter E. Roberts, "Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.)"
16. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849)
17. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849)
18. Justina's entry in the Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century
Camphausen, Hans v., 1929. Ambrosius von Mailand als Kirchenpolitiker. Berlin/Leipzig.
Homes Dudden, A., 1935. The Life and Times of St. Ambrose. Oxford.
Jones, A. H. M. et al., 1971. The Prosopographie of the Later Roman Empire I.. Cambridge.
Meslin, Michael, 1967. Les ariens d'occident, pp 335-430. Paris.

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Flavia Justinia (Iustina) the Arian
 
179 Did he bring Holy Grail to Britain?

Note: Provided tomb for the Body of Christ; directed by St. Philip to take Christianity to Britain, landing near Wearyall Hill in Glastonbury, Somerset.
The genealogies connecting Christ's family to the Fisher-Kings seem confused, with the founding Joseph shown variously as son, brother, cousin, or uncle of Jesus

Born: ? Died: abt. 82
 
Joseph ben Matthat Saint of Arimathea
 
180 Lothair II (926/8 - 22 November 950), often Lothair of Arles, was the King of Italy from 948 to his death.[1] He was of the noble Frankish lineage of the Bosonids, descended from Boso the Elder. His father and predecessor was Hugh of Provence and his mother was a German princess named Alda (or Hilda).

Although he held the title of rex Italiae, he never succeeded in exercising power there. He was betrothed in 931 and married, 12 December 947, to the fifteen-year-old Adelaide,[2] the spirited and intelligent daughter of Rudolf II of Burgundy and Bertha of Swabia.

Their marriage was part of a political settlement designed to conclude a peace between her father and his.[3] The couple had a daughter, Emma, born as early as 948, who was married in 966 to the Carolingian Lothair of France.

Lothair's power in Italy was nominal. From the time of the successful uprising of the nobles in 945, when Hugh was forced into exile, Berengar of Ivrea kept all real power and patronage in his hands. Lothair died at Turin, perhaps poisoned by Berengar, who attempted to cement his usurped political power in Lombardy by forcing Lothair's widow to marry his son Adalbert. Instead she entreated the protection of Otto I of Germany, whom she married.

Lothair figures briefly in the vita of Adelaide written by Hroswitha of Gandersheim.

Note

1.^ He was co-king with his father from 931.
2.^ Odilo of Cluny gives her age at her marriage as "in her sixteenth year."
3.^ In 933, Hugh of Arles had given up his kingdom (Provence) to his inveterate enemy Rudolf II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles, but died in 937.

References
Pierre Riché. Les Carolingiens, une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: 1983. ISBN 2-01-009737-8 (in French)
Jean-Charles Volkmann. Bien Connaître les généalogies des rois de France. ISBN 2-87747-208-6 (in French)
"Lothar II." Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 25, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9049021.
"Lothar koenig von Italien" Genealogical references (in German).

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Lothair II of Arles
 
181 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 29th Great Grandmother Richilde (Richilda) of Arles
 
182 died in 159BC Artaxias I "the Conqueror" King of Armenia
 
183 born in 140BC died in 55BC Tigranes I Arteshesian King of Armenia
 
184 Died in 56BC Tigranes II "the Great" King of Armenia
 
185 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed August Ellis Arnold
 
186 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Celinda Miranda Arnold
 
187 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Charles Edwin Arnold
 
188 At least one living individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Floyd Arnold
 
189 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Guy Arnold
 
190 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Henry Dennis Arnold
 
191 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Lucinda Matilda Arnold
 
192 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Mary Straight Arnold
 
193 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Robert Bell Arnold
 
194 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed Sally Alice Arnold
 
195 Audrey Maxine Ellis' Half 5th Cousin 3 x Removed William Slocum Arnold
 
196 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Carl Arquitte
 
197 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Earl Arquitte
 
198 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Elihue Arquitte
 
199 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Ellis E. Arquitte
 
200 Audrey Maxine Ellis' 8th Cousin 1 x Removed Frank Arquitte
 

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